E401 - Emergency & Backup Diesel Generators

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4 days - 2.6 Continuing Education Units Awarded



Course Dates Download Brochure PDF
USD 1,995.00

 

Emergency & Backup Diesel Generators have become increasingly important.  Weather patterns and concerns over security are certainly two large driving forces for this need.  Many have an appreciation for how the Genset functions, but few understand the operation of the prime mover or the generator.  Participants will gain a practical understanding of both the prime mover and generator operation and maintenance, along with the prime mover and generator control devices.  This course, once a thorough review of theory has been completed, emphasizes practical knowledge, with safety always an issue.  Course content is of great benefit to technicians and engineers who are responsible for ensuring the availability of their emergency, standby, or remote generators as a reliable source of emergency power.

LEARN…
  • How electricity is produced, how the commercial power grid functions, and what power quality issues can effect customer services
  • The operation and purpose of a transfer switch and examine a basic transfer switch control circuit.
  • How static transfer switches operate and the purpose of open and closed transitions.
  • How does a Diesel engine work, proper fuel storage and care.
  • How does a generator function, where should the Genset be located, how are gensets paralleled with commercial power, and how are gensets exercised.
  • Weekly, Monthly, Semi-annual, and Annual Maintenance routines
  • Genset controls and alarms
  • ...And the list of answered questions goes on!!


OBJECTIVES
Upon completion of this course, participants will be able to:

  1. Describe the characteristics of electricity.
  2. Describe Apparent, True, Reactive Power and how 3-phase power is generated.
  3. Explain how the prime mover and generator excitation are used to control the output of the generator.
  4. Describe the function of a transfer switch, open and closed transfer operation, and common maintenance routines.
  5. Explain the basic operation of a static transfer switch
  6. Explain the basic control circuit of a transfer switch
  7. Explain the purpose and basic operation of a UPS system
  8. Interpret single line diagrams of facility distribution systems.
  9. Describe how the North American commercial power grid functions to provide a constant source of power with limited power quality issues.
  10. Describe the various power quality issues and how they effect the operation of customer connected systems and equipment.
  11. Describe how protective relays monitor voltage, current, phase, and frequency characteristics.
  12. Determine the correct size of Genset needed for a specific KVA load.
  13. Explain the basic operation of a four-stroke diesel engine cylinder.
  14. Describe the starting system of a diesel engine.
  15. Describe the operation of the fuel, air, exhaust, cooling, and lubrication systems of a diesel engine.
  16. Describe the engine speed control system and how the engine is effected by the generator load.
  17. Explain the engine alarms and cool down period upon shutdown.
  18. Describe how a generator functions.
  19. Describe the major generator components.
  20. Explain how the generator frequency output is monitored and how it effects the operation of the engine.
  21. Explain operation and maintenance of the most common excitation systems.
  22. Explain how the voltage regulator alters generator output in response to a voltage deviation.  
  23. Describe generator normal/safe startup and shutdown procedures as well as those circuits, which accomplish this automatically.


COURSE TOPICAL OUTLINE
Day One

  • AC Principles Overview: Voltage, current, resistance, power, Ohm’s Law
  • Power:  Apparent, True, Reactive, Power Factor, 3-Phase Power, Generator components, sine waves, prime mover control of frequency, and excitation control of voltage.
  • Single Line Diagrams: Facility distribution system normal feed from utility
  • Transferring Power: Sensing loss of power, starting standby power, and transferring to stand by power.


Day Two

  • Diesel Fuel:  More energy/gallon than gasoline, less volatile, rating in cetane,  auto ignition temperature , shelf life.
  • Diesel Engine Combustion Chamber: piston, intake valves, exhaust valves, fuel injection nozzle.
  • Chemical energy to Mechanical Energy: Burning Diesel/ compressed air mixture, turbo charger, compression ratio.
  • Four stroke operation: 1-Pulling in the air (intake valve opens), 2-Compressing the air(intake valve closes), 3- injecting the fuel, exploding the air fuel mixture, 4-Expelling exhaust gases exhaust valve opens)
  • Engine Block: robust bored cylinder holes, water jacket for cooling cylinders, lubrication ports for oil, various threaded holes for cylinder head, water, oil pumps, cam, crank shafts.
  • Pumps/fans- mechanical: parasitic loads Water, oil, fuel, pumps/fans and external tubing/hoses.
  • Pumps/fans – electric: Water ,oil, fuel, fans
  • Radiator:  Water level, antifreeze, thermostat
  • Exhaust: manifold piping, turbo charger, catalytic converter, muffler
  • Filters: Air, oil, water separator, fuel
  • Engine Controls: Engine Control Unit (ECU), Engine Protection
  • Sound/vibration:  sound deadening panels, vibration isolation.
  • Routine Preventive Maintenance


Day Three

  • Commercial power grid: Sources of commercial power, Qualifying criteria for the grid, testing grid sources, connecting to the grid, rejection from the grid, disconnecting from the grid.
  • Quality Power Issues: Voltage Sags and Swells, Over/Under Voltage, Frequency, loss of Phase, Loss of Power.
  • Transferring Power: Transfer Switch, open/closed transition, static transfer switches, basic control circuit, UPS systems protective relay operation, 3 pole switching, and separately derived systems.
  • Standby Power Systems:  Mandated systems, optional systems, critical loads and load shedding.
  • Matching gensets to loads:  Load KVA vs Genset KW, single genset vs multiple.
  • Locations:  flood plain considerations Genset , main fuel tank , power cable, exhaust fumes , noise, public safety.


Day Four

  • Generator Theory Overview: Alternating Current, Three Phase Power, Stator Armature Windings, Armature Reaction, Rotor Magnetic Field, Load Applications, Active Power (kW), Reactive Power (kVAR), Losses,
  • Generator Construction: Stator Frame, Core, Windings, Enclosure, Rotor Body, Field Windings, Retaining Rings, Collector Rings or Rotating Rectifier Assembly
  • Governor Operation: Purpose of Governor, Synchronous vs. Isochronous Operation, Control Concepts and Sensing Components.
  • Excitation Systems: Purpose of Voltage Regulator, Response to Voltage Deviation, Manual Regulation, Impedance Compensation, Types of Exciters, Use of Silicon Controlled Rectifiers in Firing Circuits, Limiters.
  • Normal Genset Operations:  Engine Control Unit (ECU), Engine Protection, Startup, Synchronizing, Shutdown,
  • Generator Electrical Tests: Safety Considerations
    • STATOR:  Winding Resistance, Insulation Resistance, Dielectric Absorption,
    • ROTOR: Resistance Test, PI, Impedance Testing, Pole Drop.

 What You Will Receive:

  • 1 copy of HPC Technical Services' textbook, Emergency & Backup Generators.  
  •  A "Certificate of Completion" with 2.6 CEUs.