OP321 - Fundamentals of Voltage & Frequency Controls

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2 days - 1.3 Continuing Education Units Awarded


Course Dates Download Brochure PDF
USD 1,695.00


This Seminar covers the importance of voltage and frequency in the bulk power system. In order to respond to rapid, unexpected system voltage deviations, we need to carry sufficient reactive reserves to better respond to unannounced voltage fluctuations. In addition to these changing voltages, power system frequency varies due to the constantly changing load. This module is designed to present the day-to-day, hour-to-hour, minute-to-minute changes in system load that result in voltage and frequency deviations from the ?scheduled? voltage and frequency. Operations personnel, electrical supervisors and engineers should attend the Voltage and Frequency Module.

Seminar OBJECTIVES:
Upon completion of this Seminar, the participant should be able to:
  1. Define true power and Reactive Power and the relationship between Reactive and Power and Voltage Control.
  2. Define voltage deviations.
  3. Discuss the causes and effects of high and low voltages.
  4. Discuss voltage control equipment available and the role of the power system operator in the control of voltage.
  5. Discuss the reactive capability of synchronous generators.
  6. Explain the need to match generation to load and describe how the load/frequency relationship and system inertia contribute to frequency control.
  7. Explain the principle of governor action and the contribution of generating unit governors to generation control.
  8. Explain how the automatic generation control (AGC) system regulates frequency and controls interchange.
Seminar OUTLINE:
  1. Power
    1. True and Reactive Power
    2. Reactive Power and Voltage
    3. Reactive Power Flow
  2. Voltage Deviations
    1. Voltage Deviations and Schedules
  3. Causes and Effects of High/Low Voltage
    1. Causes of low voltage
    2. Trip of a Transmission Line
    3. Trip of a Generator
    4. Low Voltage and Shunt Capacitor Banks
    5. Excessive Power Flows Across The Power System
    6. Unscheduled Power Flows
    7. Overvoltage
    8. Long Term Overvoltages
    9. Causes of Short Term Overvoltages
    10. Load Rejection
    11. Harmonic Overvoltages
    12. Causes of Transient Overvoltages
    13. Switching Surges
    14. Lightning Strikes
    15. Effects of High and Low Voltage
    16. Effect of High Voltage on Transformers
    17. Effect of High Voltage on Customer Equipment
    18. Effect of High Voltage on Load Magnitude
    19. Effects of Low Voltages
    20. Effect of Low Voltage on Power System Equipment
    21. Effect of Low Voltage on System Load Magnitude
  4. Voltage Control Equipment
    1. Use of Static Var Compensators
    2. Capacitors and Reactors
    3. Use of Transformers
    4. Role of the Power System Operator
    5. Indication of Voltage Deviations
    6. Responding to Low Voltage
    7. Responding to High Voltage
    8. Voltage Control Summary
  5. Reactive Capability of Generators
    1. Excitation Systems
    2. Generator Reactive Capability Curve
    3. Thermal Unit Reactive Capability Curve
    4. Hydro Unit Reactive Capability Curve
    5. Constraints on the Capability Curve
    6. Dynamic Reactive Reserves
  6. Energy Balances
    1. The Changing Load
    2. Need For Generation Control
    3. Definition of a Control System
    4. Consequences of Over and Under Generation
    5. The Load Frequency Relationship
    6. Non-Motor Loads
    7. Motor Loads
    8. Power System Inertia
  7. Governor Control Systems
    1. Governor Control System Operation
    2. Mechanical Governor Assembly
    3. Governor Characteristic Curve
    4. Isochronous (Flat-Line) Governor Control
    5. Governors with a Droop Characteristic
    6. Achieving Droop in a Centrifugal Speed Governor
    7. Governor Control in the Interconnected Power System
    8. Frequency Trace to Illustrate Governor Response
    9. Generator Response and Droop Settings
    10. Same Size Units-Same Droops
    11. Same Size Units-Different Droops
    12. System Frequency Response Characteristic
    13. Frequency Bias
    14. Response to a Loss of Generation
    15. Limitations to Governor Response
    16. Droop Limitations
    17. Responsive Spinning Reserve and Ramp Rate
    18. Blocked Governors
  8. Automatic Generation Control System
    1. The Automatic Generation Control
    2. Function of an AGC System
    3. Definition of a Control Area
    4. Interchange
    5. Actual Net Interchange
    6. Scheduled Net Interchange
    7. Inadvertent Net Interchange
    8. AGC System Operating Modes
    9. Constant Frequency Control
    10. Constant Net Interchange Control
    11. Tie-Line Bias Control
    12. The Ace Equation
    13. Frequency Bias Constant
    14. Example of Tie-Line Bias Control
    15. External Generation Loss
    16. Internal Generation Loss
    17. A1-Zero Crossing
    18. A2-Ld Compliance