G401 - Utility Generators: Theory, Controls, Operation, Maintenance & Testing

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5 days - 2.9 Continuing Education Units Awarded


Course Dates Download Brochure PDF
USD 2,995.00


In most plants, the AC generator is the least understood, most “mysterious”, and most reliable component in the power plant.  Given all this, it should be understood that There are NO SMALL PROBLEMS when it comes to your GENERATOR!”  Now is the time to close this knowledge gap.  In this Seminar you will learn: Design, Construction, Operations, Safety, Testing, Inspection/Repair as well as disassembly/reassembly.  Don't be surprised.  Be prepared.  Register for this Seminar today.  This Seminar is designed for plant engineers who have a specific need to better understand generator equipment.  The Seminar is intended for “experienced operational personnel”, plant technicians and engineers.
 
Topics include: Generator Theory (Lite) • Systems Operation • Generator Auxiliaries • Generator Excitation Systems & Controls • Normal Operations • Abnormal Operations • Generator Construction • Planning and Scheduling Generator Outages • Disassembly • Visual Inspection • Reassembly • Resistance Testing • Dielectric • Absorption Testing • DC Current Leakage Test • Dissipation Factor Test • Radio Noise Test • High Potential Testing • Ring Test • Polarization • Index • EL CID
  • How does a generator function?
  • Why is it designed as it is?
  • What happens if the generator is synchronized out-of-phase? Or any of the other abnormal conditions that may occur?
  • How can we avoid such an error?
  • How should the generator respond to frequency or voltage deviations?
  • Which electrical tests should be performed, how do you avoid accidents, and when should these tests be performed?
  • How do you repair commonly found mechanical problems within the generator components?
  • How can we avoid accidental injury when testing the generator?
  • What are the probable causes of grounded fields?
  • Why have we (recently) heard of hydrogen explosions? How do we avoid?
  • ...And the list of answered questions goes on!!
OBJECTIVES:
Upon successful completion of this Seminar the participant will be able to:
  1. Describe how a generator functions.  (Learn why and how the voltage drops with an application of a load and learn why and how the rotor speed and angle change as that load is applied).
  2. Describe active and reactive power. (Learn how active power is generated, how reactive power is generated, and how these loads are shared from one generator to another.)
  3. Describe the major components used in the construction of an AC generator.
  4. Learn how these components are at risk during mis- or abnormal operations.
  5. Explain operation and maintenance of the most common excitation systems.
  6. Explain how a speed governor alters generator output in response to a frequency deviation. (Learn why the speed changes when a load is applied.  Learn what is the role of the governor is response to this speed/frequency change).
  7. Explain how the voltage regulator alters generator output in response to a voltage deviation.  (Furthermore, learn why the voltage drops, how a voltage drop is detected, where it is detected, and how the voltage regulator responds as it does).
  8. Discuss the causes and effects of both voltage and frequency oscillations and the impact they each have on power system dynamics.
  9. Describe generator normal/safe startup and shutdown procedures.
  10. Describe why the generator synchronizing process is as it is.   (Learn what are the results of not checking phase rotation, of mismatching voltages, of mismatching frequencies, and closing the circuit breaker out-of-phase.)
  11. Discuss abnormal generator operation and recommended actions for generator protection.
  12. Given an unfortunate abnormal condition, describe possible results to equipment and/or system.
  13. Describe the major activities associated with generator maintenance.
  14. Describe proper generator disassembly and reassembly sequences.
  15. Describe the procedures for cleaning generator components.
  16. Describe the procedures for inspection of generator components.
  17. Given any generator component, describe the types of damage that might be found, and what are probable causes of that damage.
  18. Describe the various repair methods for defective component condition.
  19. List all those electrical tests commonly performed on large AC generators.
  20. For each electrical test listed, describe the purpose of conducting that test; I.e., what are we looking for as a result of the test?
  21. Describe the procedures for the various generator tests.
  22. List and describe safety precautions for the conducting of these electrical tests.
INSTRUCTOR and Related Information:
Seminar is instructed by equipment experienced engineers.  The developer of the Seminar, Harold Parker, is an ex-GE service engineer (15-years with GE, 30+ years in the industry).  This Seminar has been developed with the support of many of those engineers who come together annually to present HPC's ADVANCED Generator Maintenance Seminar.
Each participant receives the following items:
  • A single copy of HPC's Generator Technologies Seminar book (a $295 value)
  • One Certificate of Completion
  • One Letter of Accomplishment for those requesting the Certification Examination
Participants who are active in HPC's Certification Program will be required to complete a comprehensive examination upon Seminar completion.  As usual, there is a 80% passing requirement.
OUTLINE:
  1. Monday
    1. Generator Theory: Armature Reaction, Resistive Loads, Inductive Loads, Capacitive Loads, Power Transfer and Load Angle, Reactive Power, Net Air Gap, Developed Torque, Watt and VAR Control, Generator Capability, Stator Winding Heating, Field Heating, Core End Iron Heating, Power System, Power Transfer Between Generator Rotor and Stator, Short Circuit Ratio
    2. Generator Theory (Lite): Fundamentals of Generator Design, Review of AC Power, Armature Reaction, Development of Torque, Net Air Gap Magnetic Fields, Effects of VARs on Current, Effect of VARs on Voltage, Active and Reactive Power Flow, Generators Operating Under Load, Changing MW load, Changing MVAR load.
    3. System Operations: Structure of the Power System, Interconnections, Power Balance, Operation of the System, State of the Power System.
  2. Tuesday
    1. Generator Construction: Stator Frame, Core, Windings, End Shield, Rotor Body, Field Windings, Retaining Rings, Collector Rings, Hydroelectric Differences
    2. Excitation Systems, Voltage & Frequency Control: Speed Governor Response to Frequency Deviations, Automatic Voltage Regulator Response to Voltage Deviations, Manual Regulator, URAL, Impedance Compensator, Volts/Hertz, Maximum Excitation Limit, Transfer & Tracking, PSS, De-Excitation, Steady State Operation, Transient Conditions, Earlier Excitation Systems, Rotating AC Exciters, Alterrex, SCRs, Brushless Excitation Systems, Static Excitation Systems, SCPT, SCT-PPT, Bus Fed Exciters
    3. Generator Auxiliary Systems: Purpose and Operations of the Generator Hydrogen Control System, Generator Seal Oil System, and Stator Liquid Cooling System (as required).
  3. Wednesday
    1. Normal Operations: Preparation for Start-Up, Synchronizing, Load Changes, Use of Reactive Capability Curve, Shut-down
    2. Abnormal Operations: Relationships Between Operations, Protection and Alarms; Alarms, Protection when Off-Line, Tripping Methods, Protective Actions for Generator Faults and Abnormal Operations & Protection Recommendations:
      1. System Steady & Dynamic Conditions, Frequency Deviations, Voltage Deviations, Instabilities, Loss of Synchronism, Stator Overcurrent, Field Ground, Stator Ground Fault, Stator Phase-to-Phase Fault, Over Voltage, Over Volts-per-Hertz, Field Overheating, Loss of Excitation, Bearing Vibration, Synchronizing Errors, Motoring, Seal Oil System Pressure, Stator Coolant System, Local Overheating, Unbalanced Armature Currents, Breaker Failures, System Back Up, Voltage Surges, Transmission Line Planned Switching, High Speed Reclosing, Accidental Energization
  4. Thursday
    1. Outage Planning & Scheduling: Why Maintenance, Preparation, Tooling, Documentation, Pre-Shutdown Maintenance, Decision Making
    2. Generator Mechanical Maintenance Activities: Why Generators Fail, Special Tools, Spare Parts, Safety Precautions, Disassembly/Reassembly Procedure, Cleaning and Checklists. Stator Visual Inspection to include; Loose Slot Wedges, Discoloration, Loose Punchings, Bar Vibration, Girth Cracks, Corona, Loose/Broken Ties, Liquid Connections, Air Baffles, Oil Deflectors, and Hydrogen Seals. Rotor Visual Inspection to include Collector Rings, Rotor Journal Surface, Terminal Studs, Hydrogen Seal areas, Axial Flow Fans, End Turns, Field Slot Wedges, Retaining Rings.
  5. Friday
    1. Purpose of Generator Electrical Tests: Safety Considerations, STATOR: Winding Resistance, Insulation Resistance, Dielectric Absorption, Direct Current Leakage, Dissipation Factor Test, Radio Noise (Corona), High Potential Test, Ring Test, EL-CID and for the ROTOR: Resistance Test, PI, Impedance Testing, Flux Pattern Test, Pole Drop, High Potential Testing, Air Gap Flux Probe Testing.

Client List: Alstom Power, Cayman Islands Utilities, Entergy-Arkansas, Entergy-Louisiana, Exelon Nuclear, Hawthorne Power Services, MidAmerican Energy, Institute for Nuclear Power Operators (INPO), Southern California Edison, US Navy